The natural history of endovenous glue-induced thrombus (EGIT) resolution and the role of anticoagulation (AC) and/or anti-platelet (AP) agents in their management is currently ill-defined. The goal of this investigation is to determine the clinical behavior of EGITs and whether or not AC or AP affects treatment outcomes.


We performed a retrospective review of all endovenous ablations utilizing cyanoacrylate glue (CAG) from January 2020 to December 2021 at the Center for Vein Restoration. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) patients who developed an EGIT (EGIT/CAG) and (2) patients treated with CAG and no EGIT development (CAG). Demographics, medical/surgical histories, revised Venous Clinical Severity Score (rVCSS), Chronic Venous Insufficiency Quality of Life Questionnaire (CIVIQ), CEAP, EGIT category, type of anticoagulation, resolution time, location of any deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were analyzed, catheter tip distance, treatment length and proximal thigh diameters were all analyzed. EGITs were categorized as follows: EGIT 1: thrombus extension into the deep vein covering less than 25% of the luminal area; EGIT 2: thrombus between 25% and 49%; EGIT 3: thrombus between 50% and 74%; and EGIT 4: total occlusion. Our protocol is to perform post-procedure duplex scans within 3 to 7 days after endovenous ablations to assess for post-intervention DVTs.


During the study period, 2374 patients received 4321 CAG procedures. EGITs were observed in 133 patients (3.1%): EGIT 1 (n = 57); EGIT 2 (n = 35); EGIT 3 (n = 19); and EGIT 4 (n = 22). All EGITs were identified by surveillance scanning. No patient presented with limb or pulmonary symptoms suggestive of VTE. The average age, rVCSS, and CIVIQ 20 of the entire cohort was 65.3 ± 14.2 years, 8.2 ± 2.8, and 48 ± 18.3, respectively with 89 females and 44 males. For EGIT 1, 56 of 57 (98%) resolved at 4.2 ± 5.1 weeks, with one patient lost to follow-up. AC/AP regimen included two aspirin (ASA), one Eliquis, 5 Xarelto, and nothing in 49 patients (86%). For EGIT 2, 27 of 35 (77%) resolved at 4.4 ± 3.4 weeks, one was unresolved, six regressed to EGIT 1, and one remained an EGIT 2 at the last follow-up examination. AC/AP regimens included seven ASA, three Eliquis, three Xarelto, one Coumadin, and nothing in 21 patients (60%). For EGIT 3, 12 were in the common femoral vein (CFV), three in the popliteal vein (POPV), one in the external iliac vein, and three in the gastrocnemius veins. Nine of nineteen (47%) resolved at 6 ± 5.9 weeks, four regressed, one migrated to the proximal CFV, three became chronic, and two were lost to follow-up. AC/AP regimens included three ASA, three Eliquis, seven Xarelto, and nothing in six patients (32%). AC/AP compared with no AC/AP had no effect on clot resolution (P = .3). Of the 22 EGIT 4, one was in the CFV, two were in the POPV, and 18 (82%) were remote calf vein DVTs (15 gastrocnemius, one peroneal [PV], and three posterior tibial veins [PTVs]). The CFV EGIT became chronic, one POPV resolved, and one was lost to follow-up. For the gastrocnemius clots, five became chronic, eight resolved, and two were lost to follow-up. For the PTV clots, one resolved, one became chronic, and one was lost to follow-up. The PV clot became chronic. AC/AP regimen included four ASA, five Eliquis, six Xarelto, and nothing in seven patients. AC/AP compared with no AC/AP had no effect on clot resolution (P = .9). The average proximal thigh diameter (millimeters, mm), vein length treated (mm), and catheter distance (mm) from the junction were the following: EGIT 1 (5.9 ± 2.4, 37.5 ± 17.6, and 5.2 ± 1), EGIT 2 (5.9 ± 1.7, 38 ± 16.9, 4.79 ± 0.71), EGIT 3 (5.1 ± 2.6, 27.9 ± 16.6, and 5.26 ± 1.4), and EGIT 4 (5 ± 1.7, 29.9 ± 15.8, and 5.39 ± 2.18), respectively. Treatment length alone was significantly shorter in EGIT 3 and 4, compared with EGIT 1 and 2 (P ≤ .05). Catheter distance from the junction was longer in EGIT 1, 3, and 4 patients compared with CAG patients (P ≤ .02).


Regardless of EGIT class or severity, the majority of EGITs are not associated with clot extension or migration and tend to resolve or regress. For EGIT class 1 and 2 patients, AC or AP therapy is not necessary, as 86% and 60%, respectively, resolved with observation alone by 4 weeks. For EGIT 3, 68% resolved or regressed regardless of AC or AP use. The majority of EGIT 4 were remote calf vein DVTs. EGIT 3 and 4 associated with the saphenofemoral/popliteal junction are rare. When compared with CAG patients, proximal thigh diameters and treatment lengths were larger and longer in EGIT 1 and 2 patients. Catheter proximity to the junction was not associated with a higher incidence of EGIT formation.